Friday, May 22, 2020

Essay on U.S. Influence on Latin Culture - 989 Words

Since the beginning of the United States intervention within the affairs of Latin American politics in the beginning of the twentieth century, and since the advent of a U.S. effort towards the modernization of Latin America, influences aimed at empowering communities and bringing about democratic movements among Latin American countries have been accompanied by various forms of exploitation and cultural decimation (Leonard, 1999). Efforts at modernization of Latin America have been carried out partly in opposition to the influence IberoCatholic culture (of Spain) which is reported to deprive the Latin Americans of the essential tools for progress: a future vision, a work ethic, the importance of education, a reward for merit, a sense†¦show more content†¦imposes (Mcanany, 1986). More recent and developed theories of the way in which cultural and economic manipulation are intertwined show that: ...the historical evolution of markets in different parts of Latin America... reveal the complexity of the process and the extent to which the state actors served as social engineers [emphasis added] in creating and shaping them. Indeed, the historical record shows that markets were not just locations of exchange or price-setting institutions but sites for different contests and conflicts over interests the complexity of which is not expressed adequately as economic. Although the effects of United States economic influence upon Latin America can not be separated from the cultural effects, my task is to focus on specifically cultural effects. However, as it turns out, Latin America, and particularly Brazil (Reiss, 1999), has been very successful in protecting its media from the potentially destructive forces of U.S. and global influence by maintaining control within governmental and private domains (Stevenson, 1994: 34). Music from the United States is also influential in Latin America. Cali, Columbia is reported - to some degree - to be a site of cultural identification with the phenomena and meaning of Rap music, and this serves as a positive example of U.S. influence. The significance embedded in this issue is very complex of course, involving the history of slavery, as well as currentShow MoreRelatedThe Latino And Hispanic Group1025 Words   |  5 Pagestoday in the U.S. and has a variety of different groups. According to the U.S. Census, a Latino/Hispanic person can be black or white when considering race. Depending on the country the individual is from, it could determine if they view themselves as white, black or neither. The census category of Hispanic became official near the late 20th century. In 1933, President Roosevelt made a â€Å"good neighbor policy† meaning the U.S. would pursue a noninterventionist approach towards Latin America, no longerRead MoreEssay about Dollar Diplom acy1577 Words   |  7 PagesDollar Diplomacy Ever since the 17 republics of mainland Latin America emerged from the wreck of the Spanish Empire in the early 19th century, North Americans had viewed them with a mixture of condescension and contempt that focused on their alien culture, racial mix, unstable politics, and moribund economies. The Western Hemisphere seemed a natural sphere of U.S. influence, and this view had been institutionalized in the Monroe Doctrine of 1823 warning European states that any attempt to extendRead MoreLatin American Music And Its Impact On America915 Words   |  4 PagesLatin Americans are considered as minority in the USA because they have a great diversity regard with race, culture and language. They helped build this country since their cultures have been adopted in this country and them also apport help to this country. Latin Americans have made a lot of contributions to the USA such as military, language, fine arts, literal arts, music, politics, food and others. Economic Music Hispanic’s music had a great impact in USA. Nowadays, Americans listen to Hispanics’Read MoreThe Impact Of Latin American Culture On Latin America1656 Words   |  7 Pageszone, living in Latin America would be much like that. The war being fought here is very different, instead of fighting another country, they are fighting drugs. Although war is generally a negative thing, this one is not. In this war there are negatives, but the positives far outweigh them. Latin American countries have witnessed the very noticeable benefits of the drug trade in many aspects of everyday life. The use and production of drugs is important to Latin American culture, brings communitiesRead MoreWater Scarcity Is An Environmental Problem That Reaches1446 Words   |  6 Pages Water scarcity is an environmental problem that reaches around the globe. This lack of water is called the World Water Crisis. In the U.S, people are privileged enough to be able to use clean water for many thi ngs. However, the U.S is effected by water scarcity as well as countries who are underdeveloped and aren t as privileged as we are. Only 2.5 percent of Earth s water is fresh water, of which industrial uses account for 22 percent of available fresh water, domestic use requires only 8Read MoreManifestation of Latin-American Gender Roles in American Media1220 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Manifestation of Latin Gender Roles in American Media Objective The objective of this study is to examine the manifestation of Latin gender roles in American Media. Towards this end, this study will examine the literature in this area of inquiry. Introduction Gender roles are reported to be generally defined as sex-based categories that specify appropriate rules of conduct for males and females in a particular culture or society. Although grounded in biological differences between males andRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Latin American Immigration on America1553 Words   |  7 Pagesimmigration has been a means of discovery and exploration of new lands. In today’s culture, immigration to the United States is an avenue for individuals who wish to start new lives and take advantage of the capitalistic, entrepreneurial system. People from many countries have migrated into the United States. Most recently, the migrants have come from Central and South American countries. These Latin American countries influence America’s society culturally and economically through their language, traditionsRead MoreThe Latino Journey in the United States: Immigrants Essay1693 Words   |  7 Pagesintersection between both minority and majori ty groups. Finally, we get to the apex of this investigation: what lies in the future for Latino Americans in the United States? Although Latino Americans have been portrayed by the majority American culture as a lazy, thieving, and dirty people, their presence in the United States has immensely contributed to it’s development socially, economically, and politically, and their continued presence seems integral to the future of an America that is fastRead MoreHofstedes Improve Four Dimensions Helping Others1372 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysing 116 000 survey questionnaires, Hofstede’s improve four dimensions helping others to understand different culture behaviour. These dimensions were created based on simple problems that most societies have every day. The first dimension, power distance (PD), refers to â€Å"hierarchy†, to how inequality is approved by subordinates and superiors, how power is divided between societies and how people behave with authority. Hofstede divided this dimension in low which are societies with characteristicsRead MoreThe Legacy Of The Monroe Doctrine1195 Words   |  5 Pagesestablished by U.S. president James Monroe and the U.S. secretary of state John Quincy Adams. Their plan of the Monroe Doctrine represented a solid line where the Americans will no longer tolerate interference from European powers in any way shape or form. For the most part, America was minding its own business until Imperialism started booming in the late 1800’s. Latin America was less developed and America saw South and Central America as perfect candidates to extract resources and sell U.S. goods. The

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Harlem Renaissance Essay - 1341 Words

In the beginning of the chapter 3, Addison Gayle Jr., says that black critic today about how beautiful poem, melody, play, or novel had made single black man’s life. He also says that American writer an American for black honor attached. The one problem during the Renaissance was they had really short life there was no black people in it other than artists. Harlem Renaissance were first one to criticize black and white. They came to dominate Harlem Renaissance through creativity and culture. Madhubuti’s contention, Jeffery Stewart stated after major victories of the civil rights movement another intellectual and cultural rebellion called Black Power movement. Madhubuti’s, a black arts movement members relationship with Harlem Renaissance†¦show more content†¦In African American cultural they have interracial and intraracial conflict come up in theme in African American cultural aesthetic movements. Internal factor is an advanced argument. In reality Harl em Renaissance and Black Arts movements advocated African American arts which are created by black artists from their illusion and influences. The connection between the rationale behind the Harlem Renaissance and the ethos of the black art movement is that both are discovering for â€Å"new soul† , â€Å"a fresh spiritual and cultural focusing† , â€Å"Old Negro† and â€Å"a renewed race-spirit that consciously and proudly set [...] itself apart† from white America. Harlem Renaissance has more influence on the black art movement. Even they have a negative image of Harlem Renaissance and they stand to reason Renaissance in black aesthetic. â€Å"Interracial cosmopolitanism† is a sense in Black Arts movement that connect to Harlem Renaissance. Hip hop artists and intellectual have principle, refuse to contribute the influence in both Harlem Renaissance and Black Arts movement and have real relationship with classic and contemporary in African Americ an studies. African critical theoretical approach to Harlem Renaissance and Black Arts movements not for to see winner or failure but, to inspired generation of intellectual, artists, and activists. â€Å"the basic power relations† is to continue to struggle against ideologies and political economies of white supremacy, patriarchy, colonialism,Show MoreRelatedEssay on The Harlem Renaissance1184 Words   |  5 Pagesallowed thousands of Negroes to finally leave the backward Southern states and move to the progressive . North. Many migrated to New York City and ended up in Harlem. Harlem was essentially a Jewish neighborhood , until the Black community settled in. Harlem, where Blacks eventually became the majority. In Harlem a new black cultural identity began to emerged. It came forth through social, religious, civic and cultural organizations,also through newspapers and journalsRead MoreEssay about The Harlem Renaissance1582 Words   |  7 Pages1930’s, the Harlem Renaissance was an important movement for African-Americans all across America. This movement allowed the black culture to be heard and accepted by white citizens. The movement was expressed through art, music, and literature. These things were also the most known, and remembered things of the renaissance. Also this movement, because of some very strong, moving and inspiring people changed political views for African-Americans. Compared to before, The Harlem Renaissance had majorRead MoreHarlem Renaissance Essay1069 Words   |  5 PagesHARLEM RENAISSANCE Throughout the history of African Americans, there have been important historical figures as well as times. Revered and inspirational leaders and eras like, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, Nat Turner and the slave revolt, or Huey Newton and the Black Panther Party. One such period that will always remain a significant part of black art and culture is the Harlem Renaissance. It changed the meaning of art and poetry, as it was known then. Furthermore, theRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay1031 Words   |  5 PagesHARLEM RENAISSANCE Throughout the history of African Americans, there have been important historical figures as well as times. Revered and inspirational leaders and eras like, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement, Nat Turner and the slave revolt, or Huey Newton and the Black Panther Party. One such period that will always remain a significant part of black art and culture is the Harlem Renaissance. It changed the meaning of art and poetry, as it was known then. Furthermore, theRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay1513 Words   |  7 PagesThe Harlem Renaissance      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Chapter 1 Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Harlem Renaissance, an African American cultural movement of the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. According to Wintz: The Harlem Renaissance was â€Å"variously known as the New Negro movement, the New Negro Renaissance, and the Negro Renaissance, the movement emerged toward the end of World War I in 1918, blossomed in the mid- to late 1920s, and then withered in the mid-1930sRead More The Harlem Renaissance Essay524 Words   |  3 Pages Harlem Renaissance nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The Harlem Renaissance was a time of racism, injustice, and importance. Somewhere in between the 1920s and 1930s an African American movement occurred in Harlem, New York City. The Harlem Renaissance exalted the unique culture of African-Americans and redefined African-American expression. It was the result of Blacks migrating in the North, mostly Chicago and New York. There were many significant figures, both male and female, that had taken partRead MoreEssay on The Harlem Renaissance1187 Words   |  5 PagesThe Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance refers to a prolific period of unique works of African-American expression from about the end of World War I to the beginning of the Great Depression. Although it is most commonly associated with the literary works produced during those years, the Harlem Renaissance was much more than a literary movement; similarly, it was not simply a reaction against and criticism of racism. The Harlem Renaissance inspired, cultivated, and, most importantly, legitimatedRead More Education as a Part of the Harlem Renaissance Essay1833 Words   |  8 PagesEducation as a Part of the Harlem Renaissance In 1917, the United States found itself buried in a conflict with many different nations. Labeled as World War I, the United States goal was to support the fight for democracy across the world. As the war progressed, there was a need to fulfill many jobs due to the labor shortages that the North had been experiencing. To be more exact, the North received a major labor blow, due to the large enlistment of men into the Army. The draft also helpedRead MoreEssay about The Harlem Renaissance1515 Words   |  7 Pages   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Harlem Renaissance Poets consist of: James Weldon Johnson, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, Jean (Eugene) Toomer, Langston Hughes, Sterling Brown, Robert Hayden, and Gwendolyn Brooks. These eight poets contributed to modern day poetry in three ways. One: they all wrote marvelous poems that inspired our poets of modern times. Two: they contributed to literature to let us know what went on in there times, and how much we now have changed. And last bu t not least they all have written poems thatRead MoreThe Poems of the Harlem Renaissance Essay1039 Words   |  5 PagesThe Poems of the Harlem Renaissance I think the poems of the Harlem Renaissance do carry the tradition of poems with a message. For the three poems that I have studied I have explained their message and how they made the message. The two poems I studied which were by the same author were Harlem and As I Grew Older they were by Langston Hughes, the other poem was by Countee Cullen and is called Any Human To Another. Langston Hughes poem Harlem has a message

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Photosynthesis Light and Plant Free Essays

ESS Internal Assessment: Lab Report Aim: The aim is to measure the rate of photosynthesis of an aquatic plant (Cabomba species) at different light intensities. Hypothesis: If the distance between the lamp and the plant increases the rate of photosynthesis decreases because the plant requires light for photosynthesis to occur. Variables: Independent: The independent variable for this experiment is light intensity. We will write a custom essay sample on Photosynthesis: Light and Plant or any similar topic only for you Order Now In each trial the distance between the plant and the lamp will be increased, from 15 cm in the first trial to 30 cm in the second and then 50 cm in the third. Dependent: In this experiment we will measure the oxygen bubbles the plant releases into the water, per minute, to determine the rate of photosynthesis. Constant: * The species of plant (Cabomba) and the specific plant specimen is going to be kept the soma throughout the experiment because most different species or specimens may photosynthesize at a different rate to others. * The amount of water was also kept constant * The temperature of the water was kept constant at about 25 degrees Celsius (Room Temperature) as nothing was done to alter it throughout the experiment. The time periods were also kept constant as we did three trials of five minutes each and always measured the amount of bubbles per minute. Method: 1. Add Sodium Bicarbonate to the water 2. Put plant in water 3. Put the lamp at 15 cm for the beaker containing the plant specimen. Make sure this is measure accurately 4. Light the lamp at the same time as the timer is started 5. Observe, count and document how many oxyge n bubbles were released by the plant Materials: 1. Water 2. Sodium Bicarbonate 3. Lamp 4. Glass Vile 5. Funnel Data Collection: Measure| 15 cm| 30 cm| 50 cm| 1| 4| 3| 4| 2| 5| 5| 2| 3| 5| 5| 2| 4| 3| 4| 3| 5| 6| 1| 4| Average | 4. 6| 3. 6| 3| Discussion: The results show, that on average, the further the lamp was moved away from the plant, the fewer bubbles formed. This is due to the fact that the lamp provides heat and light for the plant, to components that are vital for photosynthesis to occur. The bubbles in the water were oxygen bubbles that are released by the plant as it respires. As the lamp is further away the plant receives less light and therefore slows the rate of photosynthesis. With less photosynthesis the plant begins to release fewer oxygen bubbles. Evaluation: Our experiment went fairly well, however our results were not very accurate for various reasons. Firstly, the lamp we sued was a simple table lamp instead of UV light used to mimic sunlight. Therefore the light used was not an accurate imitation of sunlight. This may not have allowed the plant to increase it’s rate of photosynthesis to the fullest. Therefore the rates may have been lower then they would have been in the plant’s natural environment. The second factor that may have made our experiment less accurate was the fact that the lamp was not the only source of light hitting the plant. There was general ceiling lighting in the room and a small extent of daylight falling on the plant. This can also have slightly manipulated our results, as we cannot be entirely sure if the rate of photosynthesis was solely influenced by the distance between the lamp and the plant and not by he other light sources in the room. We did not make any measurements of the temperature of the water or discuss the effects this may have had on the rate of photosynthesis. We also knew very little about the natural environment of the Cabomba plant. Therefore our experiment was not an accurate imitation of the plant natural process of photosynthesis, as we had to apply more components such as water temperature, proper lighting etc. We were very successful at measuring the amount of bubbles released per minute as we took turns and worked very successfully as a team, one member taking the time and the other watching and counting the bubbles, therefore we believe that our recorded results are fairly accurate. We also made sure that the lamp was always at the aforementioned distance from the plant specimen. Therefore I believe that our results were rather accurate given that they were recorded in a classroom environment. Conclusion: How to cite Photosynthesis: Light and Plant, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Rumble Fish Essays (1410 words) - English-language Films

Rumble Fish In thinking of films that are able to exemplify many film elements that are put together in an interesting and organized manner the movie Rumble Fish comes to mind. The director Francis Ford Coppola demonstrates how metaphors are able to help decipher a deeper meaning of the film. Rumble Fish is a film that is about growing up and seeing new things that have never been seen before. The two main characters who are brothers Rusty James and the Motorcycle Boy, experience internal conflicts. Rusty James the younger of the two looks up to his brother and wants to be like him. However the elder has grown out of his previous demeanor of always fighting and he doesn't want his brother to follow in his steps. Throughout the film he ask Rusty James why he is following him. The Motorcycle Boy knows that his brother is somewhat trapped in the city and someone needs to get him out or set him free. He looks to the fish in the pet store to explain this and it is how he relates to his brothers probl ems. This is the scene that will be examined of when Rusty James is in the pet store with his brother and they are looking at the fish. It has been explained how much everyone in town looks up to the Motorcycle Boy, and on numerous occasions Rusty James said he was going to look like him when he was older. Even though the Motorcycle Boy never shows much affection, he wants something better for his brother, and even though he never tells his brother to leave until the end when he knows he is going to die, he tries to let him know through the fish. So until this point in the movie the viewer never really knows how the Motorcycle Boy feels about his brother. The pet store is a metaphor for the lives of these two brothers. The Motorcycle Boy feels the fish are angry because they are trapped in the fish tank, he says if they were in the river they would not fight. To him Rusty James is the fish and if he got out of their town he would realize that there is something more in life. The scene starts with a dissolve of the clouds and a sign the says "Pet Store." The camera shows a double framing shot of Rusty James in the doorway of the pet store, where he pauses for a moment, and it seems that he might be unsure of whether he wants to go in or not. There is a cut to the Motorcycle Boy and he is staring into the fish tank. This scene contains the natural lighting that most of the other scenes have. Even though, the lighting is repetitive it is considered a motif of the film. Rusty James and his brother are tracked from fish tank to fish tank. The camera shot is at a straight on angle shot from the other side of the fish tank, which puts the two brothers in a double framing shot. The camera tracks the two brothers from each fish tank to the next as the Motorcycle Boy explains to Rusty James what the "rumble fish" are. The tracking does not add much to the scene however keeping both brothers together is important because it allows the viewer to see the facial expre ssions of both men. Tight framing is used when there is a two shot of the brothers from the other side of the fish tank, and the camera also shows exaggerated close-ups of the two brothers that are used for reaction shots. The dialogue is monotone, except for times when the Motorcycle Boy sounds sound by the condition of the fish, or the way Rusty James sounds when his brother is trying to explain what the fish are. All is he able to add to the conversation is, "I like the colors." Then when the officer enters the camera angles change somewhat. Since Rusty James and the officer are standing there is a low angle shot, and with the Motorcycle Boy who is kneeling there is a high angle shot. The editing consists

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Supply Chain Collaboration Between the Organization and Suppliers Essay Example

Supply Chain Collaboration Between the Organization and Suppliers Essay Example Supply Chain Collaboration Between the Organization and Suppliers Essay Supply Chain Collaboration Between the Organization and Suppliers Essay In most organizations, supply chain collaboration between the organization and suppliers can reduce inventory costs with the use of information technology (IT). Laudon and Laudon (2007) suggest that IT consists of all hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives. Computers, printers, and handheld personal digital assistants are considered hardware components. Software includes operating systems such as Linux or Windows, the Microsoft Office desktop productivity suite, and other computer programs essential to an organization that is currently on the market. Information technology offers a competitive advantage, reduces and controls costs, improves customer and supplier intimacy, and access to the global economy. Information Technology Competitive Advantage According to Laudon and Laudon (2007), more than 23 million managers and 113 million workers in the United States’ labor force rely on information systems to conduct business. IT offers the supply chain organization a competitive advantage by achieving operational excellence, customer and supplier intimacy, and improved decision making. IT allows the supply chain to respond to customers in real time, thus all improvements add up to higher sales and higher profits to the organization (Laudon and Laudon 2007). Reducing and Controlling Costs Gendron (2006) states, â€Å"Studies by the Aberdeen Group have shown that non-production materials like office supplies, computer equipment and maintenance, repair and operating provisions (MRO) can account for 30% to 60% of a company’s total expenditures yet they remain poorly controlled and costly to process at most organizations† (p. 91). Information technology permits the supply chain organization to control and process purchasing requisition for supplies efficiently and at reduced costs. Amazon. com, though is an e-commerce company, is a company that uses IT to track orders, place orders from suppliers, and also tracks where items are stored within the facility. Supply chain departments have access to several tools that can help in reducing costs. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are used by large corporations to use the Web efficiently when purchasing suppliers. Gendron (2006) states, â€Å"Studies have also noted that off-contract buying is more prevalent for services than for direct or indirect products, and service supplier networks are huge, averaging nearly 75 suppliers per purchasing employee more than double the number of suppliers per buyer of direct goods† (p. 91). The supply chain organization purchasing responsibilities is one of the fastest payback areas using the Web, because the online bidding process can be used (Gendron 2006). Global Economy Opportunities Information technology offers the supply chain organization several advantages in a global economy to help reduce inventory costs. Laudon and Laudon (2007) state, â€Å"The emergence of the Internet into a full-blown international communications system has drastically reduced the costs of operating on a global scale† (p. 7). The supply chain organization can shop a worldwide marketplace, obtaining quality and price information reliably 24 hours a day. The key advantage is that the supply chain organization can achieve extraordinary cost reductions by finding low-cost suppliers and managing production facilities in other countries. Summary Information technology offers the supply chain organization several advantages to reduce costs and improve customer relations. Information technology offers a competitive advantage by reducing and controlling costs, improving customer and supplier intimacy, and provides access to the global economy. To stay competitive, the supply chain organization must use information technology to grow the business and reduce inventory costs. References Gendron, M. P. (2006). Creating the new e-business company: Innovative strategies for real-world applications. Mason, OH: The Thomson Corporation. Laudon, K. C. Laudon, J. P. (2007). Management information systems: Managing the digital firm. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Biography of Emmett Chappelle, American Inventor

Biography of Emmett Chappelle, American Inventor Emmett Chappelle (born October 24, 1925) is an African-American scientist and inventor who worked for NASA for several decades. He is the recipient of 14 U.S. patents for inventions related to medicine, food science, and biochemistry. A member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, Chappelle is one of the most distinguished African-American scientists and engineers of the 20th century. Fast Facts: Emmett Chappelle Known For: Chappelle is a scientist and inventor who received over a dozen patents while working for NASA; he devised ways for scientists to measure plant health and detect bacteria in outer space.Born: October 24, 1925 in Phoenix, ArizonaParents: Viola Chappelle and Isom ChappelleEducation: Phoenix College, University of California at Berkeley, University of WashingtonAwards and Honors: National Inventors Hall of FameSpouse: Rose Mary PhillipsChildren: Emmett William Jr., Carlotta, Deborah, and Mark Early Life Emmett Chappelle was born on October 24, 1925, in Phoenix, Arizona, to Viola White Chappelle and Isom Chappelle.  His family farmed cotton and cows on a small farm. As a child, he enjoyed exploring the desert environment of Arizona and learning about nature. Chappelle was drafted into the U.S. Army right after graduating from Phoenix Union Colored High School in 1942 and was assigned to the Army Specialized Training Program, where he was able to take some engineering courses. Chappelle was later reassigned to the all-black 92nd Infantry Division and served in Italy. After returning to the United States, he went on to study electrical engineering and earn his associates degree from Phoenix College. He then earned a B.S. in biology from the University of California at Berkeley. After graduating, Chappelle went on to teach at the Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, from 1950 to 1953, where he also conducted his own research. His work was soon recognized by the scientific community and he accepted an offer to study at the University of Washington, where he received his masters degree in biology in 1954. Chappelle continued his graduate studies at Stanford University, though he did not complete a Ph.D. degree. In 1958, Chappelle joined the Research Institute for Advanced Studies in Baltimore, Maryland, where his research on single-celled organisms and photosynthesis contributed to the creation of an oxygen supply system for astronauts. He went on to work for Hazelton Laboratories in 1963. Innovations at NASA In 1966, Chappelle began working at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. His work as a research chemist supported NASAs manned space flight initiatives. Chappelle pioneered a way to develop the ingredients ubiquitous in all cellular material. Later, he developed techniques that are still widely used for the detection of bacteria in urine, blood, spinal fluids, drinking water, and foods. Chappelles research helped NASA scientists develop a way to remove soil from Mars as part of the Viking program. In 1977, Chappelle turned his research efforts toward the remote measurement of vegetation health through laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Working with scientists at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, he advanced the development of LIF as a sensitive means of detecting plant stress. Chappelle was the first person to identify the chemical composition of bioluminescence (the emission of light by living organisms). Through his studies of this phenomenon, he proved that the number of bacteria in water can be measured by the amount of light given off by that bacteria. He also showed how satellites can measure luminescence levels to monitor the health of crops (growth rates, water conditions, and harvest timing) and enhance food production. Chappelle used two chemicals produced by fireflies- luciferase  and  luciferin- to develop a technique for detecting adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an organic compound found in all living organisms: You  start out  with the fire fly  which you  have to obtain by the way. Either you catch it yourself or you pay the little kids to run around  catching  them for you. Then you  bring  them into the lab. You chop off their tails, grind them up and get a solution out of these ground-up tails...You add adenosine triphosphate to  that  mixture and you get  light. Chappelles method for identifying ATP is unique in that it works outside of earths atmosphere- meaning it could, in theory, be used to identify extraterrestrial life. The field of exobiology- the study of life beyond the planet Earth- owes much to Chappelles work. The scientist himself, in an interview with The HistoryMakers, said he is inclined to believe there is life beyond Earth: I  think its  likely. Its not life as we know it here on Earth. But I think its likely that theres, there are organisms up there that reproduce. Chappelle retired from NASA in 2001 to live with his daughter and son-in-law in Baltimore, Maryland. Along with his 14 U.S. patents, he has produced more than 35 peer-reviewed scientific or technical publications and nearly 50 conference papers. He has co-authored and edited numerous other publications on a variety of subjects. Accolades Chappelle earned an Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal from NASA for his work. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the American Society of Photobiology, the American Society of Microbiology, and the American Society of Black Chemists. Throughout his career, he has mentored talented minority high school and college students in his laboratories. In 2007, Chappelle was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his work on bioluminescence. He is often included on lists of the most important scientists of the 20th century. Sources Carey, Charles W. African Americans in Science: An Encyclopedia of People and Progress. ABC-CLIO, 2008.Dunbar, Brian. â€Å"Goddard Scientist Inducted Into National Inventors Hall of Fame.† NASA, NASA.â€Å"Emmett Chappelle.† The HistoryMakers.â€Å"Fireflies Light Gains New Uses in Medical and Technical Research.† The New York Times, The New York Times, 25 Aug. 1975.Kessler, James H. Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century. Oryx Press, 1996.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Posing a problematic question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Posing a problematic question - Essay Example Putting up a home requires flat and leveled ground. According to the picture, the area in question does not hold this characteristic as it is on a steep area hence making it not suitable for human habitation. Other details in the picture are controversial to these assumptions. The leaves could indicate the possibility of trees growing in the area. Another feature is the landscape that is steep in nature. Trees and steep landscape are usually associated with high rainfall that is essential for human existence. The boy in the picture shows human existence in the area despite the harsh conditions surrounding the boy. The boys’ good health demonstrates that there could be possible measures put in place rendering the area harmless by use of mosquito nets to prevent malaria (Oberlender 10). The area in question has more advantages for human habitation than hindrances. In conclusion, we see that with intervention, this area is able to support conditions required for good and healthy living